2019-06-28 17:22:47

Nitric acid Introduction and Physical Characteristics

Nitric Acid is a strong acid with strong oxidation and corrosiveness. It belongs to monobasic inorganic strong acid. It is one of the six major inorganic strong acids, and it is also an important chemical raw material. In industry, it can be used to make fertilizers, pesticides, explosives, dyes, salts, etc. In organic chemistry, the mixture of concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid is an important nitration reagent, and its aqueous solution is commonly known as nitrate or ammonia nitrogen water. The dangerous symbols are O (oxidizing agent oxidizer) and C (Corrosive corrosive), and the anhydride of nitric acid is nitrous oxide (N2O5).


Nitric Acid molecule is a planar covalent molecule. The central nitrogen atom SP2 is hybridized. One p orbital which is not involved in the hybridization forms a three-center four-electron bond with two terminal oxygen. Hydroxyl hydrogen in nitric acid forms intramolecular hydrogen bonds with non-hydroxylated oxygen atoms, which is the main reason why nitric acid is less acidic than sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, and its melting boiling point is lower than the former two.


Bond Length:


O-H: 96.4pm

N-OH: 140.6pm bond angle:

O'-N-O:130.27 degrees

O-N-OH: 113.85 degrees O'-N-OH: 115.88 degrees N-O-H: 102.2 degrees


Pure nitric acid is a colorless transparent liquid, concentrated nitric acid is a yellowish liquid (dissolved with nitrogen dioxide). Normally, it is a colorless transparent liquid with a stimulus odor of asphyxiation. Concentrated nitric acid content is about 68%, easy to volatilize, in the air to produce white fog (the same as concentrated hydrochloric acid), is nitric acid steam (generally speaking, nitrogen dioxide decomposed from concentrated nitric acid) and water vapor formed by the combination of nitric acid droplets. Dew light produces nitrogen dioxide, which is dissolved in nitric acid and turns brown. Strong acidity. It can turn wool fabrics and animal tissues into light yellow. It can react violently with ethanol, turpentine, carbon and other organic substances. It can be miscible with water. It can form azeotropic mixtures with water. Relative density (d204) 1.41, melting point - 42 C (anhydrous), boiling point 120.5 C (68%). For dilute nitric acid, we generally think that the boundary between concentration and dilution is 6mol/L. The concentration of common reagent nitric acid in the market is about 68%, while that of industrial nitric acid is 98%, and that of fuming nitric acid is about 98%.


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